Conversational Memory for LLMs with Langchain

Conversational memory is how a chatbot can respond to multiple queries in a chat-like manner. It enables a coherent conversation, and without it, every query would be treated as an entirely independent input without considering past interactions.

With and without conversational memory The LLM with and without conversational memory. The blue boxes are user prompts and in grey are the LLMs responses. Without conversational memory (right), the LLM cannot respond using knowledge of previous interactions.

The memory allows a Large Language Model (LLM) to remember previous interactions with the user. By default, LLMs are stateless — meaning each incoming query is processed independently of other interactions. The only thing that exists for a stateless agent is the current input, nothing else.

There are many applications where remembering previous interactions is very important, such as chatbots. Conversational memory allows us to do that.

There are several ways that we can implement conversational memory. In the context of [LangChain](/learn/langchain-intro/, they are all built on top of the ConversationChain.


We can start by initializing the ConversationChain. We will use OpenAI’s text-davinci-003 as the LLM, but other models like gpt-3.5-turbo can be used.

from langchain import OpenAI
from langchain.chains import ConversationChain

# first initialize the large language model
llm = OpenAI(

# now initialize the conversation chain
conversation = ConversationChain(llm=llm)

We can see the prompt template used by the ConversationChain like so:

Here, the prompt primes the model by telling it that the following is a conversation between a human (us) and an AI (text-davinci-003). The prompt attempts to reduce hallucinations (where a model makes things up) by stating:

"If the AI does not know the answer to a question, it truthfully says it does not know."

This can help but does not solve the problem of hallucinations — but we will save this for the topic of a future chapter.

Following the initial prompt, we see two parameters; {history} and {input}. The {input} is where we’d place the latest human query; it is the input entered into a chatbot text box:

Screenshot from ChatGPT conversation showing chat history and input

The {history} is where conversational memory is used. Here, we feed in information about the conversation history between the human and AI.

These two parameters — {history} and {input} — are passed to the LLM within the prompt template we just saw, and the output that we (hopefully) return is simply the predicted continuation of the conversation.

Forms of Conversational Memory

We can use several types of conversational memory with the ConversationChain. They modify the text passed to the {history} parameter.


(Follow along with our Jupyter notebooks)

The ConversationBufferMemory is the most straightforward conversational memory in LangChain. As we described above, the raw input of the past conversation between the human and AI is passed — in its raw form — to the {history} parameter.

We return the first response from the conversational agent. Let’s continue the conversation, writing prompts that the LLM can only answer if it considers the conversation history. We also add a count_tokens function so we can see how many tokens are being used by each interaction.

The LLM can clearly remember the history of the conversation. Let’s take a look at how this conversation history is stored by the ConversationBufferMemory:

We can see that the buffer saves every interaction in the chat history directly. There are a few pros and cons to this approach. In short, they are:

Storing everything gives the LLM the maximum amount of informationMore tokens mean slowing response times and higher costs
Storing everything is simple and intuitiveLong conversations cannot be remembered as we hit the LLM token limit (4096 tokens for text-davinci-003 and gpt-3.5-turbo)

The ConversationBufferMemory is an excellent option to get started with but is limited by the storage of every interaction. Let’s take a look at other options that help remedy this.


Using ConversationBufferMemory, we very quickly use a lot of tokens and even exceed the context window limit of even the most advanced LLMs available today.

To avoid excessive token usage, we can use ConversationSummaryMemory. As the name would suggest, this form of memory summarizes the conversation history before it is passed to the {history} parameter.

We initialize the ConversationChain with the summary memory like so:

from langchain.chains.conversation.memory import ConversationSummaryMemory

conversation = ConversationChain(

When using ConversationSummaryMemory, we need to pass an LLM to the object because the summarization is powered by an LLM. We can see the prompt used to do this here:

Using this, we can summarize every new interaction and append it to a “running summary” of all past interactions. Let’s have another conversation utilizing this approach.

In this case the summary contains enough information for the LLM to “remember” our original aim. We can see this summary in it’s raw form like so:

The number of tokens being used for this conversation is greater than when using the ConversationBufferMemory, so is there any advantage to using ConversationSummmaryMemory over the buffer memory?

Token count as number of interactions increase Token count (y-axis) for the buffer memory vs. summary memory as the number of interactions (x-axis) increases.

For longer conversations, yes. Here, we have a longer conversation. As shown above, the summary memory initially uses far more tokens. However, as the conversation progresses, the summarization approach grows more slowly. In contrast, the buffer memory continues to grow linearly with the number of tokens in the chat.

We can summarize the pros and cons of ConversationSummaryMemory as follows:

Shortens the number of tokens for long conversations.Can result in higher token usage for smaller conversations
Enables much longer conversationsMemorization of the conversation history is wholly reliant on the summarization ability of the intermediate summarization LLM
Relatively straightforward implementation, intuitively simple to understandAlso requires token usage for the summarization LLM; this increases costs (but does not limit conversation length)

Conversation summarization is a good approach for cases where long conversations are expected. Yet, it is still fundamentally limited by token limits. After a certain amount of time, we still exceed context window limits.


The ConversationBufferWindowMemory acts in the same way as our earlier “buffer memory” but adds a window to the memory. Meaning that we only keep a given number of past interactions before “forgetting” them. We use it like so:

from langchain.chains.conversation.memory import ConversationBufferWindowMemory

conversation = ConversationChain(

In this instance, we set k=1 — this means the window will remember the single latest interaction between the human and AI. That is the latest human response and the latest AI response. We can see the effect of this below:

By the end of the conversation, when we ask "What is my aim again?", the answer to this was contained in the human response three interactions ago. As we only kept the most recent interaction (k=1), the model had forgotten and could not give the correct answer.

We can see the effective “memory” of the model like so:

Although this method isn’t suitable for remembering distant interactions, it is good at limiting the number of tokens being used — a number that we can increase/decrease depending on our needs. For the longer conversation used in our earlier comparison, we can set k=6 and reach ~1.5K tokens per interaction after 27 total interactions:

Token count comparison including buffer window memories Token count including the ConversationBufferWindowMemory at k=6 and k=12.

If we only need memory of recent interactions, this is a great option. However, for a mix of both distant and recent interactions, there are other options.


The ConversationSummaryBufferMemory is a mix of the ConversationSummaryMemory and the ConversationBufferWindowMemory. It summarizes the earliest interactions in a conversation while maintaining the max_token_limit most recent tokens in their conversation. It is initialized like so:

conversation_sum_bufw = ConversationChain(
    llm=llm, memory=ConversationSummaryBufferMemory(

When applying this to our earlier conversation, we can set max_token_limit to a small number and yet the LLM can remember our earlier “aim”.

This is because that information is captured by the “summarization” component of the memory, despite being missed by the “buffer window” component.

Naturally, the pros and cons of this component are a mix of the earlier components on which this is based.

Summarizer means we can remember distant interactionsSummarizer increases token count for shorter conversations
Buffer prevents us from missing information from the most recent interactionsStoring the raw interactions — even if just the most recent interactions — increases token count

Although requiring more tweaking on what to summarize and what to maintain within the buffer window, the ConversationSummaryBufferMemory does give us plenty of flexibility and is the only one of our memory types (so far) that allows us to remember distant interactions and store the most recent interactions in their raw — and most information-rich — form.

Full comparison of different conversational memory types and effect on token count Token count comparisons including the ConversationSummaryBufferMemory type with max_token_limit values of 650 and 1300.

We can also see that despite including a summary of past interactions and the raw form of recent interactions — the increase in token count of ConversationSummaryBufferMemory is competitive with other methods.

Other Memory Types

The memory types we have covered here are great for getting started and give a good balance between remembering as much as possible and minimizing tokens.

However, we have other options — particularly the ConversationKnowledgeGraphMemory and ConversationEntityMemory. We’ll give these different forms of memory the attention they deserve in upcoming chapters.

That’s it for this introduction to conversational memory for LLMs using LangChain. As we’ve seen, there are plenty of options for helping stateless LLMs interact as if they were in a stateful environment — able to consider and refer back to past interactions.

As mentioned, there are other forms of memory we can cover. We can also implement our own memory modules, use multiple types of memory within the same chain, combine them with agents, and much more. All of which we will cover in future chapters.


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